Annual report pursuant to Section 13 and 15(d)

Significant Accounting Policies

Significant Accounting Policies
12 Months Ended
Dec. 31, 2017
Accounting Policies [Abstract]  
Significant Accounting Policies [Text Block]
Note 2 – Significant Accounting Policies
Basis of Presentation
Predecessor and Successor Financial Statements
The accompanying Consolidated Financial Statements have been prepared in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States of America (“GAAP”) and the rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”).
As a result of the Business Combination, the Company is the acquirer for accounting purposes and LHLLC is the acquiree and accounting predecessor. The Company’s financial statement presentation distinguishes the Company’s presentations into two distinct periods, the period up to the Acquisition Date (labeled “Predecessor”) and the period including and after that date (labeled “Successor”). The merger was accounted for as a Business Combination using the acquisition method of accounting, and the Successor financial statements reflect a new basis of accounting that is based on the fair value of the net assets acquired. Determining the fair value of certain assets and liabilities assumed is judgmental in nature and often involves the use of significant estimates and assumptions. See Note 4 – Business Combination for a discussion of the fair values of assets and liabilities recorded in connection with the Company’s acquisition of LHLLC.
As a result of the application of the acquisition method of accounting as of the effective date of the Business Combination, the accompanying Consolidated Financial Statements include a black line division which indicates that the Predecessor and Successor reporting entities shown are presented on a different basis and are, therefore, not comparable.
The Company’s accompanying Consolidated Balance Sheets are presented for the Successor periods as of December 31, 2017, and December 31, 2016, and its Statements of Operations and Cash Flows are presented for the post-acquisition periods for the year ended December 31, 2017 and from July 20, 2016 through December 31, 2016 (Successor), and for the pre-acquisition period from January 1, 2016 through July 19, 2016 (Predecessor). For the Consolidated Statements of Stockholders’ Equity and Members’ Equity, the Predecessor results reflect the equity balances and activities of LHLLC from January 1, 2016 through July 19, 2016 (prior to the closing of the Business Combination), and the Successor results reflect the Company’s equity balances at July 20, 2016 (just prior to the closing of the Business Combination) and the activities for the Company through December 31, 2017.
The historical financial information of 1347 Capital, a special purpose acquisition company, or “SPAC” prior to the Business Combination, has not been reflected in the Predecessor financial statements as these historical amounts have been considered de minimis. SPACs deposit the proceeds from their initial public investor offerings into a segregated trust account until a business combination occurs, where such funds are then used to pay consideration for the acquiree or stockholders who elect to redeem their shares of common stock in connection with the vote to approve such business combination, and to fund the SPAC operations until the closing of a business combination. Accordingly, no other activity was reported for periods prior to July 19, 2016 besides LHLLC’s operations as Predecessor.
Principles of Consolidation
The Successor Consolidated Financial Statements include all amounts of Limbach Holdings, Inc. and its subsidiaries. The Predecessor Consolidated Financial Statements include all amounts of LHLLC and its subsidiaries. All intercompany balances and transactions have been eliminated.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of the Consolidated Financial Statements in conformity with GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the amounts reported in the Consolidated Financial Statements for assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements, the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reported period, and the accompanying notes. Management believes that its most significant estimates and assumptions have been based on reasonable and supportable assumptions and the resulting estimates are reasonable for use in the preparation of the Consolidated Financial Statements. The Company’s significant estimates include estimates associated with revenue recognition on construction contracts, costs incurred through each balance sheet date, impairment of goodwill, intangibles, property and equipment, fair valuation in business combinations, insurance reserves, income tax valuation allowances, and contingencies. If the underlying estimates and assumptions upon which the Consolidated Financial Statements are based change in the future, actual amounts may differ from those included in the accompanying Consolidated Financial Statements.
Cash and Cash Equivalents
Cash and cash equivalents consist principally of currency on hand, demand deposits at commercial banks, and liquid investment funds having maturity of three months or less at the time of purchase. The Company maintains demand accounts at several domestic banks. From time to time, account balances have exceeded the maximum available Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) coverage limit.
Restricted Cash
Restricted cash is cash held at a commercial bank in an imprest account held for the purpose of funding workers’ compensation and general liability claims against the Company. This amount is replenished either when depleted or at the beginning of each month.
Accounts Receivable
Accounts receivable include amounts billed to customers under retention provisions in construction contracts. Such provisions are standard in the Company’s industry and usually allow for a small portion of progress billings or the contract price, typically 10%, to be withheld by the customer until after the Company has completed work on the project. Based on the Company’s experience with similar contracts in recent years, billings for such retention balances at each balance sheet date are finalized and collected after project completion. Generally, unbilled amounts will be billed and collected within one year.
The carrying value of the receivables, net of the allowance for doubtful accounts, represents their estimated net realizable value. Management provides for probable uncollectible accounts through a charge to earnings and a credit to the valuation account based on its assessment of the current status of individual accounts, type of service performed, and current economic conditions. Balances that are still outstanding after management has used reasonable collection efforts are written off through a charge to the valuation allowance and an adjustment of the account receivable.
Joint Ventures
The Company accounts for its participation in certain special purpose, project specific joint ventures under the equity method of accounting. The Company’s entry into these joint ventures is for the purpose of bidding, negotiating and completing specific projects. The Company and its joint venture partner(s) separately enter into their own sub-contracts with the joint venture for each party’s respective portion of the work. All revenue and expenses and the related contract assets and liabilities related to Limbach’s sub-contract are recorded within the Company’s statement of operations and balance sheet, similarly to any other construction project. The joint venture itself does not accumulate any profits or losses, as the joint venture revenue is equal to the sub-contracts it issues to the joint venture partners. The voting power and management of the joint ventures is shared equally by the joint venture partners, qualifying these entities for joint venture treatment under GAAP. The shared voting power and management responsibilities allow the Company to exercise significant influence without controlling the joint venture entity. As such, the Company applies the equity method of accounting as defined in ASC Topic 323 – Investments – Equity Method and Joint Ventures.
Revenues and Cost Recognition
Revenues from fixed price and modified fixed price contracts are recognized on the percentage-of-completion method, measured by the relationship of total cost incurred to total estimated contract costs (cost-to-cost method). Contract revenue for long-term construction contracts is based upon management's estimate of contract values at completion, including revenue for additional work on which the contract value has not been finalized (claims and unapproved change orders) but is considered probable. Changes in job performance, job conditions, and estimated profitability, including those arising from contract penalty provisions and final contract settlements, may result in revisions to estimated costs and income, and are recognized in the period in which the revisions are determined.
Provisions for estimated losses on uncompleted contracts are recognized in the period in which such losses are determined. During the year ended December 31, 2017, the Company recorded revisions in contract estimate on three projects resulting in cumulative write downs of $4.2 million. For the period from July 20, 2016 through December 31, 2016 (Successor), the Company recorded a revision in contract estimate on a project resulting in a write down to this individual project of $2.1 million. Certain operating locations recorded revisions in their contract estimates on five projects resulting in gross profit write ups totaling $5.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2017.  
Contract costs include direct labor, material, and subcontractor costs, and those indirect costs related to contract performance, such as indirect labor, supplies, tools, repairs, depreciation, and insurance. Total estimated contract costs are based upon management's current estimate of total costs at completion.
There are two basic types of service contracts: fixed price service contracts which are signed in advance for maintenance, repair, and retrofit work over a period of typically one year, and service contracts not signed in advance for similar maintenance, repair, and retrofit work on an as-needed basis. Fixed price service contracts are generally performed evenly over the contract period, and accordingly, revenue is recognized on a pro rata basis over the life of the contract. Revenues derived from other service contracts are recognized when the services are performed. Expenses related to all service contracts are recognized as services are provided.
Costs and estimated earnings in excess of billings on uncompleted contracts reflected in the Consolidated Financial Statements arise when revenues have been recognized but the amounts cannot be billed under the terms of the contracts. Also included in costs and estimated earnings in excess of billings on uncompleted contracts are amounts the Company seeks or will seek to collect from customers or others for errors or changes in contract specifications or design, contract change orders in dispute or unapproved as to scope and price, or other customer-related causes of unanticipated additional contract costs (claims and unapproved change orders). Such amounts are recorded at estimated net realizable value when realization is probable and can be reasonably estimated. No profit is recognized on the construction costs incurred in connection with claim amounts. Claims and unapproved change orders made by the Company may involve negotiation and, in rare cases, litigation. Claims and unapproved change orders involve the use of estimates, and it is reasonably possible that revisions to the estimated recoverable amounts of recorded claims and unapproved change orders may be made in the near term. Claims against the Company are recognized when a loss is considered probable and amounts are reasonably determinable. Billings in excess of costs and estimated earnings on uncompleted contracts represent billings in excess of revenues recognized.
In accordance with industry practice, we classify as current all assets and liabilities relating to the performance of contracts. The terms of our contracts generally range from six months to three years.
Selling, general, and administrative costs are charged to expense as incurred. Bidding and proposal costs are also recognized as an expense in the period in which such amounts are incurred.
Goodwill and Intangible Assets
Goodwill and indefinite-lived intangible assets are not amortized, but are reviewed for impairment at least annually, or more frequently when events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying value may not be recoverable. Judgments regarding indicators of potential impairment are based on market conditions and operational performance of the business. The Company performs its annual impairment assessment for goodwill and other indefinite-life intangible assets as of October 1st or more frequently if events or changes in circumstances indicate that the asset might be impaired. In 2017, the Company performed a qualitative assessment to determine whether it was more likely than not that the fair value of each of the reporting units or indefinite-life intangible is less than its carrying value. In conducting a qualitative assessment, the Company analyzes a variety of events or factors that may influence the fair value of the reporting unit or indefinite-life intangible, including, but not limited to: if applicable; changes in the carrying amount of the reporting unit or indefinite-life intangible; actual and projected revenue and operating margin; relevant market data for both the Company and its peer companies; industry outlooks; macroeconomic conditions; liquidity; changes in key personnel; and the Company's competitive position. Significant judgment is used to evaluate the totality of these events and factors to make the determination of whether it is more likely than not that the fair value of the reporting units or indefinite-life intangible is less than its carrying value.
The Company reviews intangible assets with definite lives subject to amortization whenever events or changes in circumstances (triggering events) indicate that the carrying amount of an asset may not be recoverable. Intangible assets with definite lives subject to amortization are amortized on a straight-line or accelerated basis with estimated useful lives ranging from 1 to 15 years. Events or circumstances that might require impairment testing include the identification of other impaired assets within a reporting unit, loss of key personnel, the disposition of a significant portion of a reporting unit, a significant decline in stock price, or a significant adverse change in the Company’s business climate or regulations affecting the Company.
Long-Lived Assets
We evaluate the carrying value of long-lived assets including definite-lived intangibles whenever events or changes in circumstances (triggering events) indicate that a potential impairment has occurred. A potential impairment has occurred if the projected future undiscounted cash flows are less than the carrying value of the assets. The estimate of cash flows includes management’s assumptions of cash inflows and outflows directly resulting from the use of the asset in operations. When a potential impairment has occurred, an impairment charge is recorded if the carrying value of the long-lived asset exceeds its fair value. Fair value is measured based on a projected discounted cash flow model using a discount rate which we feel is commensurate with the risk inherent in our business.
Property and Equipment, net
Property and equipment, including purchases financed through capital leases, are recorded at cost and depreciated on a straight-line basis over their estimated useful lives. For buildings and leasehold improvements, the Company’s useful lives range from 5 to 40 years; for machinery and equipment, useful lives range from 3 to 10 years. Expenditures for maintenance and repairs are expensed as incurred. Leasehold improvements for operating leases are amortized over the lesser of the term of the related lease or the estimated useful lives of the improvements.
Deferred Financing Costs 
Deferred financing costs representing third-party, lender debt issuance costs are deferred and amortized using the effective interest rate method over the term of the related long-term debt agreement, and the straight-line method for the revolving credit agreement.
Debt issuance costs related to term loans are reflected as a direct deduction from the carrying amount of Long-term debt liability. Debt issuance costs related to revolving credit facilities are capitalized and reflected as an other asset.
Stock-Based Compensation
Upon approval of the Business Combination, the Company adopted the Limbach Holdings, Inc. Omnibus Incentive Plan (the “2016 Plan”). Certain employees, directors and consultants will be eligible to be granted awards under the 2016 Plan, other than incentive stock options, which may be granted only to employees. The Company has reserved 800,000 shares of the Company’s common stock for issuance under the 2016 Plan. The number of shares issued or reserved pursuant to the 2016 Plan will be adjusted by the plan administrator, as they deem appropriate and equitable, as a result of stock splits, stock dividends, and similar changes in the Company’s common stock. In connection with the grant of an award, the plan administrator may provide for the treatment of such award in the event of a change in control.
During 2017, the Company granted restricted stock units (“RSUs”) under the 2016 Plan. Stock-based compensation awards granted to executives, employees, and non-employee directors are measured at fair value and recognized as an expense. For awards with service conditions only, the Company recognizes compensation expense on a straight-line basis over the requisite service period based on the closing market price of the Company’s common stock at the grant date. For awards with service and performance conditions (“PRSUs”), the Company recognizes compensation expense based on the closing market price of the Company’s common stock at the grant date using the graded vesting method over the requisite service period. Estimates of compensation expense for an award with performance conditions are based on the probable outcome of the performance conditions. The cumulative effect of changes in the probability outcomes are recorded in the period in which the changes occur. For awards with market-based conditions (“MRSUs”), the Company uses a Monte Carlo simulation model to estimate the grant-date fair value. The fair value related to market-based awards is recorded as compensation expense using the graded vesting method regardless of whether the market condition is achieved or not. The Company has elected to account for forfeitures as they occur to determine the amount of compensation expense to be recognized each period. At December 31, 2016, no stock-based awards had been granted under the 2016 Plan.
The Company measured future compensation expense for all stock options and warrants based on the fair value of the awards at the grant date using the Black-Scholes option pricing model. The Company’s Predecessor stock options could only be exercised in connection with a change in control of the Company, consummation of an initial public offering, or dissolution of the Company, as defined by the agreement. In conjunction with the Business Combination on July 20, 2016, the Predecessor options were exercised in a cashless exercise and compensation expense for all outstanding options was recorded in the Predecessor period from January 1, 2016 to July 19, 2016. 
Income Taxes
The provision for income taxes includes federal, state and local taxes. The Company accounts for income taxes in accordance with ASC Topic 740 - Income Taxes, which requires the use of the asset and liability method. Under this method, deferred tax assets and liabilities and income or expense is recognized for the expected future tax consequences of temporary differences between the financial statement carrying values and their respective tax bases, using enacted tax rates expected to be applicable in the years in which the temporary differences are expected to reverse. Changes in tax rates are recorded to deferred tax assets and liabilities and reflected in the provision for income taxes during the period that includes the enactment date.
The Company evaluates the realizability of its deferred tax assets and establishes a valuation allowance when it is more likely than not that all or a portion of the deferred tax assets will not be realized. Potential for recovery of deferred tax assets is evaluated by estimating the future taxable profits expected, scheduling of anticipated reversals of taxable temporary differences, and considering prudent and feasible tax planning strategies.
Any interest or penalties incurred related to unrecognized tax benefits are recorded as tax expense in the provision for income tax expense line item of the accompanying Consolidated Statements of Operations. The Company has not incurred interest expense or penalties related to income taxes during any period presented in the Consolidated Financial Statements. The Consolidated Financial Statements reflect expected future tax consequences of such positions presuming the taxing authorities have full knowledge of the position and all relevant facts, but without considering time values.
The Predecessor was a limited liability company treated as a partnership for federal and state income tax purposes with all income tax liabilities and/or benefits of the Predecessor being passed through to its members. As such, no recognition of federal or state income taxes for the Predecessor or its subsidiaries that are organized as limited liability companies or limited partnerships was provided for in the accompanying Predecessor Consolidated Financial Statements.
Fair Value Measurements
The Company measures the fair value of financial assets and liabilities in accordance with ASC Topic 820 - Fair Value Measurements and Disclosures, which defines fair value, establishes a framework for measuring fair value and expands disclosures about fair value measurements. ASC Topic 820 establishes a fair value hierarchy that prioritizes the inputs to valuation techniques used to measure fair value and requires an entity to maximize the use of observable inputs and minimize the use of unobservable inputs. The hierarchy gives the highest priority to unadjusted quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities (Level 1 measurements) and the lowest priority to measurements involving significant unobservable inputs (Level 3 measurements). The three levels of the fair value hierarchy are as follows:
Level 1 — inputs are quoted prices (unadjusted) in active markets for identical assets or liabilities that are accessible at the measurement date
Level 2 — inputs other than quoted prices included in Level 1 that are observable for the asset or liability either directly or indirectly such as quoted prices in active markets for similar assets and liabilities, quoted prices for identical or similar assets or liabilities in markets that are not active, or other inputs that are observable or can be corroborated by observable market data for substantially the full term of assets or liabilities; and
Level 3 —  unobservable inputs in which little or no market data exists, therefore requiring an entity to develop its own assumptions.
The Company believes that the carrying amounts of its financial instruments, including cash and cash equivalents, trade accounts receivable, and accounts payable, consist primarily of instruments without extended maturities, which approximate fair value primarily due to their short-term maturities and low risk of counterparty default. We also believe that the carrying value of the term portion of the new senior credit facility approximates its fair value due to the variable rate on such debt. As of December 31, 2017, the Company determined the fair value of its senior credit facility term loan was $17.6 million and its revolver loan was $5.6 million. Such fair value was determined using discounted estimated future cash flows using level 3 inputs.
To determine the fair value of the warrants issued in connection with the Business Combination, the Company utilized the Black-Scholes model. See Note 4 – Business Combination for further discussion.
Cumulative Redeemable Convertible Preferred Stock
The Company’s cumulative redeemable convertible preferred stock is classified as temporary equity and is shown net of issuance costs. Unpaid cumulative preferred dividends are compounded and accumulated at each quarterly dividend date using the straight-line method and presented within the carrying value of the preferred stock. As of December 31, 2017, the difference between the carrying value and redemption value is due to the issuance costs and the difference between the accrual of dividends using the straight-line method and the actual stated dividend amount. On the six-year anniversary of its issuance, the preferred stock is to be redeemed by the Company. As of this date, the carrying value will equal its redemption value.
Earnings per Share
The Company calculates earnings per share in accordance with ASC Topic 260 - Earnings per Share (“EPS”). Basic earnings per common share applicable to common stockholders is computed by dividing earnings applicable to common stockholders by the weighted-average number of common shares outstanding and assumed to be outstanding.
Diluted EPS assumes the dilutive effect of outstanding common stock warrants, unit purchase options (“UPOs”) and RSUs, all using the treasury stock method, and the dilutive effect of the Series A cumulative convertible preferred stock, using the “if-converted” method. 
Warrants to purchase 600,000 shares of common stock at $15.00 per share were outstanding but were not included in the computation of diluted earnings per share for the period ended December 31, 2017 because the warrants’ exercise price was greater than the average market price of the common shares during the period. These warrants, which expire on various dates through July 20, 2023, were still outstanding at December 31, 2017. In addition, 400,000 shares of preferred stock were not included in the year-to-date 2017 computation of diluted earnings per share because their effects would have been anti-dilutive. Our 176,965 unvested outstanding service-based RSUs were also not included in the year-to-date 2017 diluted earnings per share computation because their effects would have been antidilutive. Lastly, 146,500 PRSUs and 66,500 MRSUs were not included in the computation of diluted earnings per share because the performance and market conditions were not satisfied during 2017 and they would also not be satisfied if the reporting date was at the end of the contingency period.
The computation of diluted EPS for the Successor for the period from July 20, 2016 through December 31, 2016 excluded 688,219 potential shares related to preferred stock under the “if-converted” method and 206,428 potential shares from warrants using the treasury stock method, which although “in the money” (the average market price exceeded the exercise price), would have been antidilutive for the period. Diluted EPS also excluded 51,304 potential shares under the treasury stock method in connection with 300,000 UPOs (issued in 2014) as to do so would also have been antidilutive for that period. On December 7, 2016, 282,900 UPOs were exercised, thereby leaving 17,100 UPOs outstanding and available for exercise at December 31, 2016. 
For the
For the
Period from
Period from
January 1, 2017
July 20, 2016
(in thousands, except per share amounts)
December 31, 2017
December 31, 2016
EPS numerator:
Net income (loss)
Less: Undistributed preferred stock dividends
Less: Premium paid on partial preferred redemption
Net loss attributable to Limbach Holdings, Inc. common stockholders
EPS denominator:
Weighted average shares outstanding – basic
Impact of dilutive securities
Warrants in the money
Nonvested Restricted Stock Units
UPOs in the money
Weighted average shares outstanding – diluted
Basic EPS attributable to common stockholders:
Net loss attributable to Limbach Holdings, Inc. common stockholders
Diluted EPS attributable to common stockholders:
Net loss attributable to Limbach Holdings, Inc. common stockholders
Segment Disclosure
The Company manages and measures performance of its business in two distinct operating segments: Construction and Service. The significant accounting policies described in this note are utilized within our segment reporting. The accounting policies of the segments are the same as those described in the summary of significant accounting policies. Management evaluates performance based on income from operations of the respective branches after the allocation of Corporate office operating expenses. Transactions between segments are eliminated in consolidation. Our Corporate office provides general and administrative support services to our two operating segments. Management allocates costs between segments for selling, general and administrative expenses and depreciation expense.
The Company does not identify capital expenditures and total assets by segment in its internal financial reports due in part to the shared use of a centralized fleet of vehicles and specialized equipment. Interest expense is also not allocated to segments because of the Company’s corporate management of debt service, including interest.